Preaching Values in Deuteronomy

T. Miles Bennett  |  Southwestern Journal of Theology Vol. 7 - Fall 1964

Introduction

To many, Deuteronomy is a closed book. Assuming that it is directed to the Israelites, and that its regulations and embodiment of faith are for the Jewish people only, countless Christians have too long missed its vital message. Perhaps even more tragic is the fact that ministers also have been guilty, all too frequently, of neglecting this “love-filled” book.

In the introduction to his exposition of Deuteronomy, Martin Luther said, “There are many who consider Moses and the whole Old Testament of very small value and claim to be content with the gospel. From this opinion the Christian man must be far, far removed.” Perhaps it would be pertinent to read the last line of Luther’s advice as follows: “From this opinion the Christian minister must be far, far removed.”

That he should be far removed from any such opinion is affirmed by every confessional symbol of historic Protestantism as well as by the arrangement and content of every theological curriculum. In actual practice, however, are we so far removed from the implementation of the attitude described by Luther? How many preach a balanced and fair proportion of their sermons from the Old Testament? Few ministers, if any, would put their hand to the staff of Marcion’s standard, thereby denying the Old Testament a place in the Canon. Yet, how man have not in effect reduced the canon to some acceptable portion of the New Testament and, satisfied with this limitation, have sought to fulfill their ministry?

In this connection the writer is reminded of an experience involving a seminary classmate. About ten months after graduation this friend, then a pastor, now a missionary, visited the seminary. Upon learning that the writer’s major field in graduate study was the Old Testament, he commented, “I’ve preached only one sermon from the Old Testament since graduation. My people need the New Testament.”

It is granted that our people need the New Testament. But should this need be met at the price of total or near total neglect of the Old Testament? Is this not too dear a price to pay? And is it not an unnecessary expenditure? Is not the value of the New Testament increased by proper instruction in the Old? Furthermore, does not the Old Testament commend itself to our special interest when we find its words constantly recurring in the pages of the New Testament?

The book of Deuteronomy makes a particular appeal at this point since it shares with Genesis, Psalms, and Isaiah the distinction of most frequent citation by New Testament writers. In fact only six of the New Testament books fail to allude to Deuteronomy directly (John, Col., I Thess., II Tim., and I and II Peter), and total references number more than eighty.[1]G. Ernest Wright, Interpreters Bible (Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1953), II, 311.

Some of the most significant quotations from the Old Testament are from the lips of Christ himself. To an inquirer who asked, “Which is the chief of all the commandments?” Christ replied in part by quoting from Deuteronomy: “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might” (6:5).

But there is a still more remarkable use of Deuteronomy by Christ. At the very beginning of his public ministry a view of Christ’s inner life is presented which shows him to have absorbed the teaching and temper of the highly spiritual presentation of the law of his people as found in Deuteronomy. After Christ had accepted his vocation by submitting to baptism at the hands of John the Baptist, he drew apart to a quiet place to face the tasks of the future and to consider possible ways of their accomplishment. The experiences of this season of withdrawal are summed up in the temptation narratives of the Gospels (e.g., Matt. 4:1-11). Face to face with temptation, Christ is confirmed in his noblest desires and fortified to resist unworthy methods through the words of Deuteronomy (6:13, 16; 8:3; 10:20). Rising spontaneously to his lips, these words convey his antagonism to every ignoble motive and temptation.

In Deuteronomy Jesus found the law of his nation presented in a way that laid hold upon his mind and heart. Although Deuteronomy is often called the “Book of the Law,” it is not merely a book of laws. In it Christ discovered a divine law which he was to carry to its true fulfillment.

Can Deuteronomy as seen in the light of Christ still speak to us? Can a word of God for our time be heard in this ancient book? To answer these questions one must take into account the following consideration: Deuteronomy is the unfolding of the revelation at Sinai when God stretched forth his hand toward Israel to make her his own. In point of time, however, the election of Israel by God for his “peculiar possession” was prior to his commandments to her. It is precisely because of her election that Israel is admonished to obey: “You shall therefore obey the voice of the Lord your God, keeping his commandments and his statutes, which I command you this day.” The demand for obedience is predicated upon election.

To be sure Israel was not free from the demands and the penalty of the law, but in a real sense the writer of Deuteronomy constantly admonished her to “become what you are.” In contrast those who “are in Christ” are freed from the law and the sentence of death pronounced by the law. But they too are exhorted to “become what you are.” With both there is exhortation in view of the indicative fact of salvation (election).

But let us return to the question, “Can the word of God for our time be found in Deuteronomy?” The answer is found perhaps in yet other questions: Does finite man possess the power to determine from which part of the Bible God will speak to him? Can there be a division of God’s word into those areas that do and do not speak to man? May not any of his word, indeed, does not all of his word speak to all who will heed it?

Let every minister of the word then, come to this book sincerely believing that he will be able to hear many things which are surprisingly pertinent to the faith and life of his people. Let him be bold to speak the old word into a new situation. Let the steadfast conviction that God did not merely speak to an ancient people some long time ago but that he is ready to speak to the hearts of men in this troubled age-let this conviction constantly challenge the pastor to feed his people from this magnificent book.

 

Working Your Way into the Book

Every experienced minister has long since discovered that a true sermon is born in the heart of the preacher and hammered out in disciplined study. Ideas, seed-thoughts, and sermon subjects may be suggested by others, but there is a certain amount of “spade work” that must be engaged upon by the minister himself. This is done in the solitude of the study as he reads and rereads and meditates upon the biblical passage.

October is certainly not too early to begin preparation for preaching from Deuteronomy in January. Working one’s way into this book must begin early enough for the pastor to familiarize himself not only with the contents of the book itself, but also with related matters such as authorship and historical background, as these are related to an understanding of the text and its wider context.

To discover the preaching values of any book of the Bible, one should begin with several readings of the book itself. Perhaps the initial reading should be completed as rapidly as possible, preferably at one sitting, in order to get the general thrust of the book. Other readings should follow, as many as three or four, with increasingly greater interest in division and arrangement of materials. During these readings it will be advantageous for the reader to have before him a complete but concise outline of Deuteronomy. The outline will enable him to see better the relation of the various parts to the whole.

One of the better outlines this writer has seen is by G. Ernest Wright in The Interpreters Bible.[2]Ibid., p. 329. Note its major divisions:

I. First Address: The Acts of God (1:1-4:43)

II. Second Address: The Law of God (4:44-28:68)

III. Third Address: The Covenant with God (29: 1-30:20)

IV. Appendices (31:1-34:12)

If one desires to give a more central place to Moses, perhaps the following outline will prove more satisfactory:[3]Edward J. Young, An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Errdmans Publishing Co., 1949), pp. 97ff.

I. The First Address of Moses (1:1-3:43)

II. The Second Address of Moses (4:44-26: 19)

III. The Renewal of the Covenant (27:1-30:29)

IV. Moses’ Last Words and his Death (31:1-34:12)

From multiple readings of Deuteronomy and from a careful consideration of how others have organized this material, the following plan of the book should prove highly workable:

I. Introduction: Moses Speaks to all Israel (1:1-5)
II. Moses’ First Address: Meaning of the Covenant in

Israel’s History (1:6-4:43)

III. Moses’ Second Address: Demands of the Covenant (4:44-28:68)

IV. Moses’ Third Address: Call to Covenant Commitment (29:1-30:20)

V. Appendix: Farewell and Death of Moses (31:1-34:12)

As the result of one’s study to this point, it should have become increasingly clear that Deuteronomy is structured around three “sermons” by Moses. These messages were delivered to the nation of Israel in the final days of the fortieth year of the wilderness wanderings. The book opens on the first day of the eleventh month (1:3) of the final year in the wilderness and ends immediately prior to Israel’s crossing the Jordan to invade the land of Canaan.

At this point, with Israel on the very threshold of entering the promised land, Moses pauses to recall their national history. He does so in order to show his people how this history is grounded in the covenant love (election) of God—a love shown in his mighty act of their deliverance from bondage in Egypt. How must Israel respond to such steadfast love? Moses indicates that the nation can reciprocate only with a love for God that is nothing less than unswerving loyalty to Jehovah alone. Israel must worship neither foreign gods nor allow foreign influences to creep into its own worship of Jehovah. Moreover, justice and generosity in human relations must be characteristic of Israel. Let Israel remember that her God had made possible escape from bondage in Egypt. Israel had been the recipient of God’s mercy; let her show mercy in all of life’s relationships. This covenant love toward God is the very root and life of the nation. If Israel is loyal and obedient to God, prosperity will be her fortune; but if she forgets God and turns to other gods, destruction will be her end. Therefore, as Israel stands ready to enter a new land and a new era, let her renew the covenant made with God at Sinai, and let her resolve to be obedient to every demand of this covenant.

Such is the burden of the three “sermons” of Moses. And indeed, sermons they are! One who approaches the study of Deuteronomy expecting a long code of laws—dry, dull, uninteresting—is in for quite a surprise. The book is not narrowly confined to legal matters. It is fundamentally a teaching or “exposition” (1:5) of the basis and demands of Israel’s covenant faith. It is not a code of rules, but “a preaching, a proclamation and exposition of the faith of the nation,” which includes both the “good news” of what God has done and the requirements that are binding upon those whom he has chosen and redeemed.

Deuteronomy is written in a flowing oratorical style. Throughout, it makes a constant appeal to motives and emotions. It is meant to move its hearers and its readers to action. Thus the style as well as the point of view of the book is that of a sermon, a farewell message by a wise, faithful, and devoted leader.

Having read and reread Deuteronomy and having worked his way into the book in terms of its general structure, setting, purpose, point of view, and style, the preacher is now ready to come to a study of the book in detail. This is where “living with the book” begins and, for the minister who “joys” in his studies, it will prove richly rewarding. Ample time must be given to this phase of study if maximum benefits are to be derived therefrom. As the result of a serious study of the book, the minister will become doubly aware of the exegesis and ex­ position of the text as done by others.[4]Many excellent study helps are available. See bibliography, page 53. Also, the January Bible Study text, Donald F. Ackland, Studies in Deuteronomy (Nashville: Convention Press, 1964), will be available in November 1964. All the while, under the Spirit’s guidance, he will be open to original thinking. As this study progresses, if God’s servant is sensitive to the needs to be met in his congregation, many a sermon will be born.

The writer has a strong conviction that in the area or method of study just described, there is found the “seed-bed” of most sermons that honor God and bless the people. Such a method is recommended with enthusiasm and confidence resulting from personal experience with it. This is not to suggest, however, that one cannot be directed to the “homiletical road” leading to a worthy sermon by the suggestions, pertinent pointers, and unique emphases of others. In fact, a sure fruit of the intensive method of study described above is the multiplicity of sermon “seeds” that will germinate and, if given the necessary nurture, will grow into choice flowers in the preacher’s “homiletical garden.”

In the next section attention will be given to suggestions for sermons from the Book of Deuteronomy. If these ideas serve to ignite the “homiletical fires” in the reader’s soul and thus cause him to prepare messages which will in turn burn their way into the hearts of his people, this writer will be grateful indeed.

 

Suggestions for Sermons

In terms of planning his pulpit work on Deuteronomy, the pastor has at least two approaches open to him: he may plan to preach a sermon course or a sermon series. A sermon course is the consecutive treatment of a section of scripture without any conscious attempt to build the sermons around a unifying theme. For example, one might preach a succession of sermons based upon selected texts. In the sermon series he would decide upon some great theme or themes found in Deuteronomy, and each sermon in the series would deal with a related aspect of the theme selected.

In regard to these approaches to preaching, the sermon series is probably more difficult to prepare. This is true not only because it requires a broader knowledge of the contents of the book in order to discover the themes, but also because of the necessity of finding a variety of related ideas within a larger thematic context. Although difficult, this type of preaching is challenging and richly rewarding to people and pastor. Let no minister avoid this procedure simply because he finds it more difficult than other approaches to sermon preparation.

Irrespective of one’s methodology in preaching from Deuteronomy, one must formulate plans with the basic and current needs of his congregation uppermost in mind. There are at least six of these basic areas of need and unless the pastor speaks to these needs, he is not preaching in the true sense of the word. The areas which should serve as objectives or goals for the preacher in his sermon preparation may be classified as doctrinal (that men understand God’s truth), devotional (that men love, reverence, and worship God) , pastoral (that men in need of comfort find grace and strength in the Lord), ethical (that men rightly relate themselves to other men because of a genuine relationship to God), actional (that men dedicate themselves to the Lord and serve him with total personalities, time, and re­ sources), and evangelistic (that lost men come to trust Christ as Saviour and Lord).[5]H. C. Brown Jr., “Preaching Values in Mark’s Gospel,” Southwestern Journal of Theology, I (October 1958), 70.

As one studies the Book of Deuteronomy a number of major themes appear, any one of which might well serve as the basis for a sermon series. Perhaps the most prominent theme is, “A Reminder to Remember.” The aged Moses stands on the banks of the Jordan, at the very threshold of the promised land, to deliver his farewell message to his people. He speaks to a generation which, except for two individuals, Joshua and Caleb, has witnessed only the latest acts in the drama of God’s deliverance of his people. How can he best prepare this people for what faces them in future days? Moses decides that this can best be done by vividly reminding them of God’s mighty hand in the midst of their history. With eyes undimmed by the years he looks backward to the time of Israel’s bondage in Egypt, then forward to the day when this people will be a nation of God in the land of promise. As this expanse of history is unfolded before the eyes of his people, Moses’ continual exhortation is, “Remember! Remember! Remember! Take heed lest you forget.”[6]James Cogswell, “Lest We Forget,” Interpretation, XV (January 1961), 30.

But why this constant exhortation to remember these things—Egypt, Sinai, the wilderness? Because it is precisely by these remembrances that Israel will be enabled to remember the One who had chosen them and poured out upon them his undeserved love. And herein is found the only motivation sufficient to enable Israel to love Jehovah with all her heart, soul, and might and to obey his commandments and laws.

This memory motif, so prominent in Deuteronomy, is a primary biblical emphasis. In the Bible, however, memory is more than simple psychological recall. To remember in the biblical sense is to bring the past into the present with compelling power. Present action is always conditioned by what is remembered. For example, when God “remembered” Noah, helplessly adrift in the ark, he rescued him by causing the rain to cease and a wind to blow over the face of the earth (Gen. 8:1, 2). Likewise, when God “remembered” Hannah (I Sam. 1:19), he was active in her behalf and gave her a son.

The appeal to remembrance is also a New Testament emphasis: “Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the read . . .” (II Tim. 2:8); “Do this in remembrance of me” (I Cor. 11:24c). To remember Christ is to know him as living presence and in this presence to find power for living. To remember him is to sur­ render to him, to serve him, and to live in harmony with his redemptive purpose. Moses repeatedly called on his people to remember their God, hoping thereby to challenge them to walk in God’s way and to follow his will.

A second major theme or thrust of Deuteronomy is, “God’s Character: Man’s Response.” It will serve no useful purpose to point out the individual references in the book where the truth of this theme is magnified. Rather, it will prove more helpful to indicate several areas of Deuteronomy where this emphasis is paramount, only one of which is limited to one or two verses.

The first of these areas is found in Deuteronomy 5:6-21. This section is popularly known as the “second giving of the law,” inasmuch as the commandments given in Exodus 20:2-17 are essentially repeated here. It has been pointed out many times that these commandments speak concerning the character of God and of man’s relationship to God and to his fellowman in the light of this character. Here is a fertile though neglected field for preaching. In general, commandments 1-5 (Deut. 5:7-16) are concerned with the character of God and man’s response to him resulting from his character. Commandments 6-10 (Deut. 5:17-21) deal with man’s relationship to man. Again, this relationship results from, or is the consequence of, God’s essential character.

The possibilities here for preaching on the moral demands of God are almost unlimited. The wise and serious minister will not overlook the opportunity .to speak God’s word to a society largely dominated by the idea that society itself determines moral standards.

A second area where the theme, “God’s Character: Man’s Response,” is emphasized is found in Deuteronomy 6:4-5: “Hear, 0 Israel: Jehovah our God is one Jehovah: and thou shalt love Jehovah thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.” In this passage, known to the Jew as the “Shema’,” there is found again an emphasis upon the nature of God and man’s response to him. Verse 4b points to the unity and uniqueness of God. In a world in which many gods and goddesses were worshiped, it was made known to Israel that their God was one, that he did not appear polytheistically in various forms, and that he was not to be syncretized with the gods of other peoples.

Furthermore, Israel’s God was unique. He is the God with whom no other “elohims” can be compared, the only Deity to whom the true attributes of the Godhead can really belong. Thus, he is set apart as the only God, the sovereign Lord, the sole object of man’s reverence and obedience.

This declaration of God’s oneness and uniqueness is no formal statement of ultimate truths about God. Rather it forms the basis of man’s response to God. Because Jehovah is one and unique (only), man must respond by loving him with all of heart, soul, and might.

A careful study of Deuteronomy will reveal yet other pas­ sages which are related to the theme, “The Character of God: Man’s Response.” Look, for example, at 10:12-22. The reader will likely be familiar with verse twelve, “And now, Israel, what doth Jehovah require of thee, but to f ear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all his ways, and to love him, and to serve Jehovah thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul.” It will be noted in the passage (10:12-22) that man’s response to God appears first. Nevertheless, this response is related to God’s character. Note verses 17-18b, “For Jehovah . . . is God of gods, and Lord of lords, the great God, the mighty, and the terrible, who regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward. He doth execute justice . . . and loveth the sojourner.” Again, man’s response is integrally related to God’s character as revealed to man.

This relationship is seen again in the section of Deuteronomy known as the “Deuteronomic Code” (chaps. 12-26). In fact, the very basis of the laws of this code, particularly those concerning man and man, is found in the character of God. Any exploitation of a fellow Israelite is forbidden, whether through murder, adultery, theft, dishonesty, false witness, or the taking of interest. The righteousness of God demands, negatively, the abolition of anything that defiles, even to the point of imposing the most severe penalties, as in the case of idolatry (13:1-18) or sexual abuses (22:13-24). And, positively, this righteousness means imitating God’s actions in order that a spirit of brotherly love and oneness may pervade the community. God’s love is to be reciprocated with Israel’s love, and this love must flow out into obedience to his righteous will in all areas of personal and national life.

In our own society, where individual and group relationships are rapidly deteriorating, is there not a dire need to be reminded of the character of God? Can man respond properly to his fellowman unless his response is the outgrowth of the correct conception of the nature of God?

Before leaving the great themes of Deuteronomy which may serve as starters for a sermon series, two others should be suggested, namely, “The Call to Commitment” and “The Demand for Decision.” The thrust of both themes is timely. Let the resourceful minister use them as he chooses.

As attention is directed to sermon material in Deuteronomy in terms of a sermon course or courses, it is readily apparent that the possibilities are numerous. Would not a sermon on each of the major themes suggested above provide an excellent sermon course? Perhaps a listing of these themes would prove helpful. Note the sequence: “God’s Character: Man’s Response,” “A Reminder to Remember,” “A Call to Commitment,” and “A Demand for Decision.”

The fifth chapter of Deuteronomy, which contains the Decalogue, has several possibilities for sermon courses. One avenue of approach would be ten consecutive sermons dealing with the commandments. If two sermons per Sunday seem to make the course too long (five weeks), Wednesday nights could be utilized, thus shortening the time to approximately three weeks.

Another possibility in terms of the commandments is a single sermon under the title, “Right Relationships.” Here one would be concerned with the vertical relationship, or man’s relation to God (commandments 1-5), and the horizontal relationship, or man’s relation to man (commandments 6-10). This is a large assignment for one message, but with careful preparation it can be done.

Another avenue to a sermon course results from a consideration of the three addresses of Moses which seem to be the basic framework about which the book of Deuteronomy is constructed. They are as follows: (1) Moses’ First Address: Meaning of the Covenant in Israel’s History (1:6-4:43); (2) Moses’ Second Address: Demands of the Covenant (4:44-28:68); (3) Moses’ Third Address: Call to Covenant Commitment (29:1- 30:20).

One of the more obvious approaches to a sermon course in Deuteronomy is to preach a succession of sermons based on selected texts. Any group of favorite texts would include, “Hear, O Israel: Jehovah our God is one Jehovah: and thou shalt love Jehovah thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might” (6:4-5). Among possible titles for this text are the following: “Life’s Supreme Exhortation,” “The Law of Life: Love to God,” and “The Eleventh Commandment.”

A constantly recurring warning by Moses is concerned with the people’s forgetting God, once they are prospering in the land of promise. This warning first occurs in 8:11-14: “Beware lest thou forget Jehovah thy God . . . when thou hast eaten and art full . . . and when thy herds and thy flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold is multiplied . . . then thy heart be lifted up, and thou forget Jehovah thy God . . .” An appropriate title for a perennially relevant sermon based on this text is, “The Perils of Prosperity.”

Another notable text is found in 10:12: “And now, Israel, what doth Jehovah thy God require of thee, but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all his ways, and to love him, and to serve Jehovah thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul.” A sermon on this text calling for total commitment might well carry the title, “Living on God’s Level,” or better still, “Meeting God’s Demands.”

One further text must be included: “The eternal God is thy dwelling place, and underneath are the everlasting arms” (33:27a,b) . Consider the following titles for a sermon from this text: “The Source of Certain Security,” and “The Faith that Cancels Fear.”[7]See sermon by G. Campbell Morgan in The Westminster Pulpit (London: Pickering & Inglis, LTD, n. d.), p. 322

For the daring, diligent, and experienced minister a book sermon on Deuteronomy will present a challenge. If properly prepared such a sermon will prove profitable to its hearers. This type of sermon is admittedly difficult to prepare and should come only after a complete immersion in the book by the minister.

The book sermon can be used either at the beginning or the end of a sermon course or series: at the beginning to intro­ duce the book to the hearers; at the end for the purpose of summarizing the book. From the viewpoint of the people the best time for the book sermon would be at the beginning of any course or series of sermons on Deuteronomy. For the pastor, however, the ideal time would be at the conclusion, since then he would be in a position to take advantage of all previous sermon preparation, as he builds his book sermon. In either case thorough preparation is an absolute essential.

The title of the book sermon, as indeed of every sermon, should be modern enough to possess the ring of relevance. The following are suggestive: “This Nation under God,” “Law Grounded in Love,” “Hear, 0 America, the Lord your God Is One,” “Laws, Freedom, and Faith in God.”[8]Dwight E. Stevenson, Preaching on the Books of the Old Testament (New York: Harper & Bros., 1961), p. 45.

The above sermon suggestions are in no way exhaustive of the preaching values in Deuteronomy. Many rich veins remain, waiting to be discovered and mined. The preacher who is willing to dig under the direction of the Holy Spirit can produce much valuable treasure for himself and for his people. May God bless you as you attempt it!

 

Bibliography

The following is a limited bibliography of sources for a study of Deuteronomy.

BOOKS

Aalders, G. A Short Introduction to the Pentateuch. London: The Tyndale Press, 1949.

Allis, O. T. God Spake by Moses. Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1949.

Manley, G. T. The Book of the Law. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1957.

Orr, James. The Problem of the Old Testament. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1906.

Von Rad, G. Studies in Deuteronomy. Chicago: H. Regenery Company, 1953.

COMMENTARIES

Cunliffe-Jones, H. Deuteronomy. (“Torch Bible Commentary.”) London: SCM Press, 1951.

Driver, S. R. A Critical Commentary on Deuteronomy. (“International Critical Commentary.”) New York: Charles Scribners’ Sons, 1916.

Harper, A. The Book of Deuteronomy. (“Expositor’s Bible,” Vol. I) Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1947 (Reprint).

Manley, G. T. Deuteronomy. (“New Bible Commentary.”) London: Intervarsity Fellowship, 1953.

Robinson, H. W. Deuteronomy and Joshua. (“New Century Bible.”) Edinburgh: E. C. Jack, 1908.

Smith, G. A. Deuteronomy. (“Cambridge Bible.”) Cambridge: University Press, 1950 (Reprint).

Wright, G. Ernest. Deuteronomy. (“Interpreters Bible,” Vol. II.) Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury, 1953.

INTRODUCTIONS

Anderson, G. W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1957.

Cartledge, S. A. A Conservative Introduction to the Old Testament. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1944.

Driver, S. R. Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament. New York: Meridian Books, 1960.

Francisco, Clyde T. Introducing the Old Testament. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1950.

Rowtey, H. H. The Growth of the Old Testament. New York: Hutchinson’s University Libra1y, 1950.

Young, Edward J. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1950.

PERIODICALS

The most helpful here are the two issues of Interpretation for July 1952 and January 1961. These back issues may be obtained by writing to Interpretation, 3401 Brook Road, Richmond, Virginia.

References   [ + ]

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